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Emergency First Aid Manual – Sprains and Strains

Sprains and Strains

This is caused by a twist or a blow to the joint and symptoms include swelling, bruise and pain.

First Aid

  1. Stop all movement of the injured organ.
  2. Apply a cold pack or cold compress using an ice-water mixture until the condition improves. Do not apply cold pack or cold compress for more than 20 minutes at a time. If the condition does not improve, there is intense pain or a broken bone, immediately send the person to the hospital.


There are several types of fractures such as displaced bone fracture, undisplaced fracture or hairline fracture and compound bone fracture, where the broken bone pierces the skin.

First Aid

  1. Stop all movement of the injured organ.
  2. Stop any bleeding. Apply pressure to the wound with a bandage.
  3. Make a splint. Place the injured organ in its original position on the splint or use any long and hard material. Use a cloth to wrap both ends of the fractured organ.
    *Do not wrap the cloth on top of the fractured site.
  4. Send the victim to the hospital or call the Emergency Medical Services.


Do not attempt to pull or straighten the fractured bone

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