Thailand situation report as of May 26, 2020, at 13:00 p.m.

3,045 confirmed cases 2,929 patients have recovered 57 deaths

The global situation report as of May 27, 2020, at 08:39 a.m.

5,591,067  confirmed cases 350,458 deaths

Source: Johns Hopkins CSSE , and Ministry of Public Health

The Chinese government released new data on the coronavirus (COVID-19 ) situation and acted decisively to quarantine the city of Wuhan to limit the risk of contagion before mass travel associated with Chinese New Year festivities. For day to day situation reports, please follow the links at the end of the article.
Coronavirus COVID-19 has been identified by Chinese scientists. Its origin is most likely animal, however human-to-human transmission has been confirmed. The lessons from the 2003 SARS-CoV instruct extreme caution when making definitive conclusion about the virus severity as it took 2 months for the SARS-CoV to reach its final form.
On 2 March 2020, Thailand’s Ministry of Public Health classified eleven countries as high-risk zones for COVID-19 to accommodate forthcoming control measures.

  1. China
  2. France
  3. Germany
  4. Hong Kong
  5. Iran
  6. Italy
  7. Japan
  8. Macao
  9. South Korea
  10. Singapore
  11. Taipei and vicinity
The name coronavirus comes from its shape, which resembles a crown when observed with a microscope. Coronavirus is transmitted through the air and primarily infects the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract of mammals and birds. Though most of the coronaviruses only cause flu-like symptoms, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV can infect both upper and lower airways and cause severe respiratory illness and other complications in humans.
This new COVID-19 resembles SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and causes similar symptoms. Unfortunately, there is no approved vaccine or antiviral treatment available for coronavirus infection. A better understanding of the life cycle of COVID-19, including the source of the virus, how it is transmitted and how it replicates are needed to both prevent and treat the disease.

ORIGIN

Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19): First reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China.
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): First reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): First reported in 2002 in southern China.
Common cold caused by coronavirus: Four coronavirus strains are thought to be responsible for 15-30% of common colds.

TRANSMISSION

Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19): Likely from touching or eating an infected, as yet unidentified animal. Human-to-human transmission occurs through close contact.
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): Often from touching infected camels or consuming their milk or meat. Limited transmission between humans through close contact.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): Believed to have spread from bats, which infected civets.Transmitted mainly between humans through close contact.
Common cold caused by coronavirus: Close contact with infected humans or touching a surface that carries the virus.

CASES

Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19): Around 5,591,067 confirmed cases; 350,458 deaths as of May 22, 2020 08:39 am EST
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): 2,494 confirmed cases; 858 deaths (as of Nov. 30, 2019). Mortality rate of 34%.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): 8,098 cases; 774 deaths. Mortality rate of about 10%.
Common cold caused by coronavirus: Millions each year. Generally nonlethal with rare exceptions.
Source: World Health Organization, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Wuhan Municipal Healtd Commission
Credit: Daniel Wood/NPR

Understanding the different types of COVID-19 test:

There are 2 types of test: the first one will determine the presence of the virus in your body by looking for the virus’ genetic markers. The second will look for antibodies by your immune system as a response to the virus’ presence.
Test Description Availability
PCR or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) Assesses presence of virus in patient.
Requires respiratory samples via nasopharyngal swab or sputum.
Looks for virus genetic markers: RNA (ribonucleic acid) is extracted from respiratory specimens, amplified using RT-PCR and detected using fluorescent reporter dye probes specific for SARS-CoV-2.
Test results usually require 1-2 days processing time. Due to high volume, this processing time is now up to 6 days in Thai public labs.
Who is it for: PCR is the first line test for patients with risks of contamination.
Accredited by National Lab of Thailand laboratories
Turnaround: 5-6 days
Samitivej Hospital’s ARI Clinic
Turnaround: 1-2 days
Blood tests or antibody tests or serology test or rapid test The test is based on serology test to detect antibodies (IgG & IgM) in the blood serum or plasma.
It requires a blood test.
Results are fast: 15 minutes.
Since the test looks for antibodies, it can’t be used in early stages of the disease since the body hasn’t had time to produce antibodies yet. However, it can be useful to test a person whose symptoms have subsided since the body will continue producing antibodies after the virus has been eliminated.Who is it for: for patients with long enough exposure that the body has already produced antibodies.
In the research process, awaiting approval.
Others Chest CTs have a high sensitivity for detecting respiratory symptoms, but low specificity – it is not possible to know whether respiratory symptoms are due to SARS-CoV-2 or other respiratory disorders such as pneumonia. As such, CT-scans are not used as 1st-line diagnostic tools for SARS-CoV-2.
Chest X-rays (CXR) have low sensitivity but have 2 main advantages: capacity and speed. CXR is used in conjunction with clinical history and key blood markers (blood test): CRP and lymphopaenia. CXR is allowing more rapid determination of patients without COVID-19 lung infection from probable cases of COVID-19.
Available

Screening and Prevention Measures for Patients at Risk of COVID-19 Infection

COVID-19 infection. All patients at risk of respiratory disease undergo screening and are placed in isolation in an area separated from other general patients.
We have implemented a standardized and effective screening process for all at-risk patients in accordance with international standards for protection from COVID-19. As a result, every patient receiving services at our hospital can do so confident in their safety.

The standards, steps and procedures for screening at Samitivej Sukhumvit Hospital are as follows:

Daily Situation Monitoring in Order to Prepare Support for Patients

  • Training programs are carried out to educate physicians and personnel at every level.
  • Personal protective equipment, including PPE kits and infection prevention kits, is provided to all personnel servicing at-risk patients and/or those in isolation, in order to prevent the spread of infection.

General Screening Tests

  • Informational materials are provided to all customers, within the hospital and via various media sources.
  • Entry and exit points are limited in order to screen at-risk patients.
  • Thermoscan thermometers have been installed to help screen any patients with fever.
  • Alcohol-based hand sanitizer is provided at every entry and exit point.
  • All visitors/arrivals are interviewed about their symptoms and travel history to any high-risk countries in the preceding 14 days.
  • All those who have passed screening and are not at risk will be given a green sticker for confirmation.
  • We maintain a Service Point for those who wish to be tested for COVID-19 but who are unsure if they have been exposed and/or infected. There is no need to even get out of the car. This Fast Track service point is located on the P1 parking floor.

How to contact Samitivej Hospital’s Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Clinic:

Steps

  1. Click here
  2. Click button to begin consultation
  3. See nurse for initial assessment (free)

If found to be at risk

  1. Schedule a throat swab test (6,500 THB*)
  2. Make payment online
  3. Park at ARI Clinic (P1 Fl.)
  4. Stay in your car while doctor collects the sample
  5. Results available within 24 hours**

Remarks
*Service available only at Samitivej Sukhumvit Hospital only
*Price includes doctor’s fees, laboratory fees, medical supplies and hospital service fees
**Short delays may occur in case of high volume of tests

Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Clinic is separated from other patient areas at Samitivej Sukhumvit Hospital.

Additional resources:


How to Protect Yourself from Coronavirus (COVID-19)

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Stay healthy from COVID-19

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Which mask is best for you?

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8 Measures for Conovirus Prevention

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8 Measures to prevent the spread of COVIC-19

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How long does coronovirus survive on surface?

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Caring for your health during your COVID-19 quarantine period
Samitivej Hospital offers you our care and attention while you are at home under quarantine for the COVID-19 virus. Video calls with doctors from Samitivej enable close monitoring of your situation throughout the 14-day period. more detail

FAQ

About the virus

A: Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which cause diseases ranging from a simple cold (some seasonal viruses are coronaviruses) to more severe diseases such as MERS or SARS. the virus identified in China is a novel coronavirus. It has been referred to as COVID-19.

 

A: there is no scientific data for this virus to date. However, by analogy with other viruses of the same family, this virus is suspected to be able to remain infectious in an outdoor environment, from a few hours to a few days depending on the environment in which it is located. It is a virus wrapped and therefore by some aspects more fragile than other viruses.
Standard hygiene measures (hand washing, cleaning surfaces) are effective.

 

A: According to WHO, a ‘suspect case’ is a patient with fever and cough requiring hospitalization, who has tested negative for any known pathogens which cause acute respiratory tract infections, and either: 1) has a history of travel to, or residence in, an affected area in China within the 14 days prior to symptom onset, or 2) is a healthcare worker working where patients with COVID-19 infection are located.

 

A: The diagnosis is suspected upon the onset of signs of respiratory infection in a person returning from China in the 14 days prior to the onset of symptoms, in accordance with the case definition.
A specific biological test is required to confirm 2019-nCoV infection. A specimen will be collected and sent to a central laboratory designated by the Department of Disease Control. Results will take approximately 48 hours.
.

 

A: To date, no specific treatment has been identified for this new coronavirus; treatment is symptomatic.

 

A: Among the cases reported to date, several patients have developed a severe form of the disease, some of whom have died. Available information suggests that the virus may cause symptoms similar to moderate influenza, but there may also be more severe symptoms. the disease can also progress over time. Patients with pre-existing chronic diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, liver disease, and respiratory disease, as well as the elderly, appear to be more likely to develop severe forms of the disease. We still have a lot to learn about this virus, and we will continue to analyze all available information on existing and new cases.

 

A: As with many infectious diseases, people with underlying chronic conditions (respiratory distress, frail people, elderly people, etc.) are at a higher risk.

 

Symptoms

A: the main symptoms are fever and respiratory signs such as coughing or shortness of breath. In more severe cases, the disease can lead to serious lung infection and death.

 

A: Yes, especially if you have one or more of the following symptoms: fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, and shortness of breath after travelling from Wuhan, Huanggang, Chibi, Ezhou, Zhijiang, Enshi, Xiaogan, Xianning, Huangshi, Xiantao, Qianjiang, Jingzhou, Lichuan, Hubei, or Guangzhou within the past 14 days. If you meet these criteria please notify our nurse or staff when you visit Samitivej.

 

Transmission

A: The first cases that were identified were people who had been to the Wuhan market (closed since 1 January 2020): the hypothesis of zoonosis (disease transmitted by animals) is therefore preferred. Human-to-human transmission has since been proven in China, Japan, Germany, and Vietnam. the evolution of knowledge in the coming weeks will allow us to learn more about the modes of transmission of this virus, its level of transmission, virulence, incubation period and the animals that can be carriers.

 

A: Close contact means sharing the same location as a sick person experiencing symptoms (in the same home, hospital or boarding room) or having direct face to face contact (1-2 meters apart and without effective protective measures) with a sick person during a discussion, or when they cough or sneeze.

 

A: The degree of human-to-human spread outside of Hubei province remains unclear. the virus’ reproductive number, R0, is estimated by WHO at 1.4–2.5. An R0 greater than 1 indicates that each case leads to more than 1 subsequent case, making it much more difficult to control.

 

A: Every virus mutates and can mutate at any time depending on the situation. It is still too early to tell whether the virus will mutate and become more contagious or deadly, but it is being closely observed by scientists around the world.

 

Prevention

A: They are not exactly related. You can choose to wear either a hygienic mask or an N95 mask. N95 masks can be less comfortable but offer a higher degree of protection.

 

A:

  • Eat a healthy and balanced diet, exercise regularly and get plenty of rest.
  • Wear a protective face mask when entering built up areas or when coming into contact with infected patients (especially when they are coughing or sneezing).
  • Ensure you always wash your hands with soap or alcohol-based hand gels, and avoid contact with unsanitary surfaces prior to eating.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol and smoking.
  • Stay away from places with high levels of air pollution, especially where PM2.5 is prevalent.
  • Be sure not to share the use of face towels or cutlery with others, and avoid sharing meals with infected patients.
  • Avoid traveling to places or countries where there is a suspected flu outbreak. If you must visit, be sure to wear a protective face mask when in public spaces.
  • Be sure to receive an annual influenza vaccination. Influenza is one of the most common viruses and can cause a wide range of other health complications.
  • Young infants and the elderly should also receive a pneumonia vaccination, as this can reduce their chances of developing pneumonia by up to 75%.

 

Preventive Measures

A: This is a new and emerging outbreak, and right now is too early to predict the final outcome. this time the world is better prepared. We learned a lot from both tdhe SARS and MERS outbreaks, and we believe that we can deal with this situation faster and more efficiently.

 

A: When meat is cooked, viruses are destroyed. Consumption of uncooked animal products, including milk and meat, poses a significant risk of infection by a wide variety of organisms that can cause disease in humans. Animal products that are cooked or pasteurized can be consumed, but they must also be carefully preserved to avoid cross-contamination with uncooked food.

 

A:

  1. Install thermal scanners at entrances.
  2. Set up a patient screening area.
  3. Transfer suspected patients to an isolation room.
  4. Place a clear sign detailing patient’s symptoms.
  5. Increase provision of alcohol gels and face masks.
  6. Provide face masks to patients who cough or sneeze.
  7. Give importance to hand hygiene.
  8. Staff thoroughly clean all public spaces.

 

Travelers

A: Currently, there is no travel restriction to Thailand imposed by any country. However, tourists should be cautious and vigilant of the current situation. Thai officials state that they can still keep the situation under control and they have a clear direction on how to handle the outbreak. My best advice is to stay up to date with travel health advisories from trustworthy authorities such as WHO and Thailand’s Department of Disease Control
Here are the links to their websites.
https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019
https://ddc.moph.go.td/viralpneumonia/eng/index.php

 

A: Coronavirus is not visible. If a person appears to have a high fever and respiratory tract symptoms, and comes from an area where the virus is endemic (see answer to question 6), it would be reasonable to assume that the person may carry coronavirus.

 

A: As of 30 January 2020, there have been several case reports supporting human-to-human asymptomatic transmission, but this has not yet been confirmed by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is still premature to conclude that the virus can be transmitted from an asymptomatic patient, who has tested positive for the virus, to another person. If asymptomatic transmission is proven to be true, the current protocols which WHO and many countries’ healthcare authorities use to screen and prevent the spread of the disease will be significantly less effective.

 

Health Articles

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